Abstinence-only education takes another hit in a new study that finds that not only do teens who vow chastity until marriage have premarital sex on par with non-pledgers but that they’re much less likely to use condoms or other forms of contraception.
The “virginity pledge” — a central tenet of premarital abstinence-only education programs and purity balls — has been assailed by reproductive health advocates as a dangerous and ineffective method of protecting teens from unplanned pregnancies and sexually transmitted diseases.
Johns Hopkins University researcher Janet E. Rosenbaum’s analysis takes previous studies of teen sexuality a step further by comparing religiously conservative teens who pledged virginity with those who did not and combines that information with a new factor — all the subjects share similar views on sex, birth control and 100 different variables. Her study will appear in the January issue of the journal Pediatrics.
In a story reported by The Washington Post on the ineffectiveness of virginity pledges, Rosenbaum found that over the study’s five-year period:
…82 percent of those who had taken a pledge had retracted their promises, and there was no significant difference in the proportion of students in both groups who had engaged in any type of sexual activity, including giving or receiving oral sex, vaginal intercourse, the age at which they first had sex, or their number of sexual partners. More than half of both groups had engaged in various types of sexual activity, had an average of about three sexual partners and had had sex for the first time by age 21 even if they were unmarried.
“It seems that pledgers aren’t really internalizing the pledge,” Rosenbaum said. “Participating in a program doesn’t appear to be motivating them to change their behavior. It seems like abstinence has to come from an individual conviction rather than participating in a program.”
Most disturbing is the trend that 82 percent of those who pledged to remain chaste denied making the promise five years later. That result is consistent with a 2006 study on virginity pledges by Rosenbaum that found more than half of the adolescents had recanted and engaged in sex.
For young people who break their abstinence vow, the report finds that they are 10 percent less likely to use condoms and 6 percentage points lower in other contraception use than their sexually active counterparts.
Rosenbaum attributes the lower contraception use to abstinence-only education programs that “tend not to give accurate information about condoms and birth control.”
According to the Guttmacher Institute, the U.S. government allotted $176 million for FY 2008 to support programs that exclusively promote abstinence-only outside of marriage, including virginity-pledge programs” despite a wealth of evidence that the approach doesn’t work. Since 1982, the feds have allocated over $1.5 billion to support these failed programs.
Nearly half of all states now turn down funding for the strict abstinence-only programs pushed by the Bush Administration in order to have greater leeway in providing more comprehensive sex education that emphasizes both abstinence and effective contraception use.